This peace treaty mainly affects Indians of the 5 civilized tribes, which are the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole. They were called civilized because they more readily took on the White man’s ways including holding Black people as slaves. After the Indian removal act of 1830, these tribes were forcibly removed from their native lands in the Southeastern U.S.A. to travel the “trail of tears” to Indian Territory which is present day Oklahoma. A number of Black people affiliated with these tribes, traveled with them.
When the Civil War started, the Union Army withdrew from Indian Territory. The Confederacy filled the void and the Indians signed pacts on the side of the South. There were still many Indians loyal to the North.
Upon defeat of the South by the North, these tribes being sovereign nations, had to each sign peace treaties with the U.S. Government. The significance for Black tribal constituents was that the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves under White rule (state freedmen), but had no power with those under Indian rule. Under the treaty of 1866, the Indians ceded land over, freed their slaves and were to take in their Black constituents as citizens with full citizenship rights and privileges. Freedmen’s descendants are also impacted and included.
The 5 Tribes, each being sovereign nations, required different remedies in the treaty process that affected the African/Indians. However, there were some common factors that remained consistent in all treaties.
The mission of the Descendant Freedmen Alliance of Kansas City is to promote awareness and education of and about people with African and Indian mixed ancestry or Freedmen.
We were born under the influence of the Muskogee Creek Indian Freedmen Band in 2015, and one of our main objectives is collaboration with Freedmen and Freedmen groups nationwide.
As the organization grew, continuing the observation of the treaty celebration was important.
We also continued joining with other Freedmen groups, such as THE DESCENDANTS OF FREEDMEN OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES. These meetings in Oklahoma have been instrumental to DFAKC’s development.